If Clause type dan Wish Beserta Fakta

If Clause Type
(1) it is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
form : if + Simple Present, will-Future, example : If I meet her, I’ll ask her for diner

(2) It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
form : if + Simple Past, past future (= would + Infinitive), example : if I found her address, I would send her an invitation

(3) It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past..
Form: if + Past Perfect, past future perfect (= would + have + Past Participle), example If I had worked harder, I would have had a car.

Tipe Wish dan faktanya
(1) Future wish :
- I wish my friend would visit me this afternoon. (Saya berharap teman saya akan mengunjungi saya sore ini). Faktanya: my friend will not come this afternoon.
- They wish that you could come to the party tonight. (Mereka berharap bahwa kamu bisa datang sebentar malam). Faktanya: you can’t come.
- Bobby wishes he were coming with Angelia. (Bobby berharap dia datang dengan Angelia). Faktanya: Bobby is not coming with Angelia.

(2) Present wish :
- I wish I were rich. (Saya berharap saya kaya). Faktanya adalah: I am not rich.
- I wish I had enough time to finish my work. (Saya berharap saya punya cukup waktu untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan saya). Faktanya: I don’t have enough time to finish my wor
- John wishes that Ririn were old enough to be his girl friend. (John berharap bahwa Ririn cukup umur untuk menjadi pacarnya). Faktanya: Ririn is not old enough to be John’s girl friend

(3) Past Wish :
- I wish I had washed my clothes yesterday. (Saya berharap saya telah cuci pakaian-pakaian saya kemarin). Faktanya: I didn’t wash my clothes yesterday
- Irwan wishes that he had answered the questions well. (Irwan berharap bahwa dia telah menjawab soal-soal dengan baik). Faktanya: Irwan didn’t answer the questions well.
- Christian Ronaldo wishes that his team could have beaten the German team. (Christian Ronaldo berharap bahwa teamnya dapat mengalahkan team Jerman). Faktanya: Christian Ronaldo’s team couldn’t beat the German team.
- I wish you had been here last night. (Saya berharap kamu ada di sini tadi malam). Faktanya: you were not here last night

Source :
1) http://swarabhaskara.com/miscellaneous/conditional-sentences-part-2/
2) http://e-englishlab.blogspot.com/2011/01/conditional-sentences-if-clauses-type-i.html

Conditional Sentences

Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan kegiatan yang lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalah Real Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal, kadang-kadang disebut juga if-clauses.

Beberapa Tipe Conditional Sentences…

1)Zero Conditional
Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan kebenaran umum. Tense yang digunakan biasanya Present Simple Tense
contoh : (1) If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.

2) Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan tentang mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang dan pengandaian ini bisa saja terjadi. Klausa “if” biasanya dalam bentuk Present Simple Tense.
contoh : (2) If I see you tomorrow, I will buy you a drink

3) Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang pengandaian yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi.Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan situasi yang tidak nyata di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang. Tipe ini digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah harapan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam klausa IF adalah Past Simple Tense.
contoh : (3) If I won the lottery, I would buy a new house.

4) Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional Tipe III, digunakan sebagai penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional. Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah kondisi di masa yang lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Sering digunakan untuk mengkritik atau penyesalan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam Klausa IF adalah Past Perfect Tense.
contoh : (4) If I had worked harder,I would have passed my exam

Catatan: Jika klausa “if” diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan “koma”. Sebaliknya jika klausa “if” berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

contoh lain :
(5) If I hadn’t helped you, you would have failed
(6) If it had been sunny, we could have gone out.
(7) I would buy a new car, if I won the competition
(8) I won’t mark your homework, unless you hand it in.
(9) Unless you hand in your homework, I won’t mark it.
(10) Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius,

source : http://ismailmidi.com/berita-140-conditional-sentences.html

Intransitive Verb

Intransitive verb adalah kata kerja yang tidak memerlukan objek atau pelengkap, Dalam suatu kalimat, intransitive verbs bisa menjadi akhir kalimat tersebut. Jika tidak, adverbia atau frase preposisi akan menjadi akhir kalimat yang berfungsi menerangkan intransitive verbs.

kategori kata kerja intransitive :

1) Kata kerja intransitif yang mana saja, yang membuat pengertian lengkap dengan sendirinya, dan tidak memerlukan kata atau kata-kata apa saja untuk ditambahkan padanya untuk maksud ini, disebut intransitive verbs of complete predication.
Contoh:
Cows walk,
horses run, dsb.

2) Intransitive verb with complement (kata kerja intransitif dengan komplemen)
Kata-kata kerja intransitif yang tidak membuat pengertian yang lengkap dengan sendirinya, tetapi memerlukan komplemen, disebut intransitive verbs of incomplete predication.
Komplemen untuk kata kerja intransitif dalam bentuk yang sama jenisnya seperti komplemen untuk kata kerja transitif.

3) The cognate object (objek yang sama asalnya, sifatnya atau artinya)

Kata kerja intransitif kadang-kadang boleh diikuti oleh kata benda yang sedikit banyak telah dinyatakan secara tidak langsung dalam kata kerja itu sendiri.
Jadi kita boleh mengatakan “He has lived a happy life” (ia hidup bahagia). Kata benda “life” (kehidupan) telah dinyatakan secara tidak langsung dalam kata kerja “lived” (hidup), dan sebenarnya merupakan bagian dari artinya.
Objek yang demikian disebut cognate object, karena kata benda yang menunjuk padanya merupakan arti yang sama terhadap kata kerja itu sendiri.

contoh :
1) The baby is crying.
2) Water boils at 100 degree celcius.
3) She sits alone.
4) They will sleep in my hotel.
5) We are walking in the garden.
6) Tom fell.
7) They ran down the road.
8.) She sits alone.
9) They will sleep in my hotel.
10) We are walking in the garden.

Source :
1) http://www.englishgrammar-exercises.com/Verbs_intransitive1.php
2) catatanbahasainggris.blogspot.com/2009/04/transitive-dan-intransitive-verbs.html
3) http://ismailmidi.com/berita-271-transitive-and-intransitive-verbs.html

Transitive Verb

Transitive Verb Yaitu kata kerja yang memerlukan object untuk menyempurnakan arti kalimat atau melengkapi makna kalimat. Kata kerja Transitive diantaranya adalah: Drink, watch, read, fill, open, close, dll
Beberapa kata kerja Transitive :

1)Noun (kata benda)
Contoh: He killed a snake. Ia membunuh seekor ular

2) Pronoun (kata ganti)
Contoh: That snake bit her. Ular itu menggigitnya

3) Infinitive (infinitif)
Contoh: He desires to success. Ia menginginkan sukses

4) Gerund (kata kerja yang dibendakan)
Contoh: He disliked hunting. Ia tak suka berburu

5) Phrase (ungkapan)
Contoh: She doesn’t know how to make things go. Ia tidak tahu bagaimana membuat segala sesuatu berjalan dengan baik

6) Clause (anak kalimat)
Contoh: We don’t know what she wants. Kami tidak tahu apa yang dikehendakinya

Contoh Lainnya :
7) I like watching television
8.) She’s going to get some money at the bank
9) I’ve heard that Mr Hasan has written a book.
10)I always buy a newspaper.

Source :
1) http://ismailmidi.com/berita-211-verbs.html
2) http://bahasakita.com/about/grammar/verb/transitive-verbs/
3) http://www.englishgrammar-exercises.com/Verbs_transitive1.php

Passive voice

-Pasif (passive voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya dikenai pekerjaan oleh object kalimat, walaupun Active voice lebih sering digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, namun passive voice sering kita temukan surat-surat kabar, artikel-artikel di majalah-majalah dan tulisan-tulisan ilmiah. Passive voice digunakan karena object dari active voice merupakan informasi yang lebih penting dibandingkan dengan subject-nya. Passive voice dalam rumusnya mempunyai Subject + be + Verb3 + by + Object + modifier

-Contoh dan Cara Mengubah Active Voice ke Passvie voice
a. Jika active voice dalam simple present tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah is, am atau are.

Contoh:
Active : He meets them everyday.
Passive : They are met by him everyday.

Active : She waters this plant every two days.
Passive : This plant is watered by her every two days.

b. Jika active voice dalam simple past tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah was atau were

Contoh:
Active : He met them yesterday
Passive : They were met by him yesterday

Active : She watered this plant this morning
Passive : This plant was watered by her this morning

c. Jika active voice dalam present perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary has atau have, sehingga menjadi ‘has been’ atau ‘have been’

Contoh:
Active : He has met them
Passive : They have been met by him
Active : She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
Passive : This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.

d. Jika active voice dalam past perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary had, sehingga menjadi had been

Contoh:
Active : He had met them before I came.
Passive : They had been met by him before I came.

Active : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
Passive : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here

e. Jika active voice dalam simple future tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah be

Contoh:
Active : He will meet them tomorrow.
Passive : They will be met by him tomorrow.

Active : She will water this plant this afternoon.
Passive : This plant will be watered by her this afternoon.

f. Jika active voice dalam future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary will have, sehingga menjadi ‘will have been’

Contoh:
Active : He will have met them before I get there tomorrow.
Passive : They will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.

Active : She will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
Passive : This plant will have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.

g. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah been yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary would have, sehingga menjadi ‘would have been’.

Contoh:
Active : He would have met them.
Passive : They would have been met by him.

Active : She would have watered this plant.
Passive : This plant would have been watered by her.

h. Jika active voice dalam present continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (is, am atau are) + being.

Contoh:
Active : He is meeting them now.
Passive : They are being met by him now.

Active : She is watering this plant now.
Passive : This plant is being watered by her now.

i. Jika active voice dalam past continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (was atau were) + being.

Contoh:

Active : He was meeting them.
Passive : They were being met by him.

Active : She was watering this plant.
Passive : This plant was being watered by her.

j. Jika active voice dalam perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (has/have) been + being.

Contoh:
Active : He has been meeting them.
Passive : They have been being met by him.

Active : She has been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant has been being watered by her.

k. Jika active voice dalam past perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah had been + being.

Contoh:
Active : He had been meeting them.
Passive : They had been being met by him.

Active : She had been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant had been being watered by her.

l. Jika active voice dalam future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will be + being.

Contoh:
Active : He will be meeting them.
Passive : They will be being met by him.

Active : She will be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant will be being watered by her.

m. Jika active voice dalam past future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would be + being.

Contoh:
Active : He would be meeting them.
Passive : They would be being met by him.

Active : She would be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant would be being watered by her.

n. Jika active voice dalam future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will have been + being.

Contoh:
Active : He will have been meeting them.
Passive : They will have been being met by him.

Active : She will have been watering this plant.
Passive : This plant will have been being watered by her.

o. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would have been + being.

Contoh:
Active : He would be meeting them.
Passive : They would be being met by him.

Active : She would be watering this plant.
Passive : This plant would be being watered by her.

Sumber : http://swarabhaskara.com/miscellaneous/active-and-passive-voice/

Contoh Artikel Dalam Bahasa Inggris

The Takarazuka Revue was founded by Ichizo Kobayashi, an industrialist-turned-politician and president of Hankyu Railways, in Takarazuka, Japan in 1913. The city was the terminus of a Hankyu line from Osaka and already a popular tourist destination because of its hot springs. Kobayashi believed that it was the ideal spot to open an attraction of some kind that would boost train ticket sales and draw more business to Takarazuka. Since Western song and dance shows were becoming more popular and Kobayashi considered the Kabuki theater to be old and elitist,[1] he decided that an all-female theater group might be well received by the general public.
Part of the novelty of Takarazuka is that all the parts are played by women, based on the original model of Kabuki before 1629 when women were banned from the theater in Japan. The women who play male parts are referred to as otokoyaku (literally “male role”) and those who play female parts are called musumeyaku (literally “daughter’s role”). The costumes, set designs and lighting are lavish, the performances melodramatic. Side pathways extend the already wide proscenium, accommodating elaborate processions and choreography. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takarazuka_Revue)

Verb = founded, played,banned etc
Subject The Takarazuka Revue, the city, etc
“The women who play male parts are referred to as otokoyaku (literally “male role”) “..
kata “who” menjadi menjadi modifier atau memperjelas kata “women” itu sendiri..sedangkan kata “referred” menjadi komplemen dari dari “male part” dalam kalimat tersebut

Modifier

Modifier merupakan prepositional phrase atau dapat dikatakan suatu kalimat yang dimulai oleh kata depan dan diakhiri oleh noun,contohnya seperti pada kalimat “in the morning” (pada pagi hari), “on the table” (di atas meja), “at the university” (di universitas).
Modifier berfungsi untuk menerangkan waktu (modifier of time), menerangkan tempat (modifier of place), atau menerangkan cara dalam melakukan kegiatan (modifier of manner), Modifier dapat menjawab pertanyaan ‘when’, where, dan ‘how’. Selain itu, modifier dapat juga berupa single adverb (misalnya: yesterday (kemarin), outdoors (luar gedung), hurriedly (dengan buru-buru) atau adverbial phrase (misalnya: last night (tadi malam), next year (tahun depan).

Contoh kalimat :
1) He threw the ball far away here
(Frase ‘far away’ menjadi modifier atau memperjelas kata kerja ‘threw’. Modifier ‘far away’sendiri dijelaskan oleh kata ‘here’).
2) The black jacket is really expensive
(Subjek ‘jacket’ dibuat jelas oleh kata ‘black’)
3) The bag you wear made in China
(Subjek ‘the bag’ diperjelas oleh klausa ‘you wear’)
4) It becomes totally unpredictable
(Kata ‘totally’ memperjelas complement ‘unpredictable’)
5) She drinks orange juice
(kata ‘orange’ menjadi modifier dari objek langsung ‘juice’) . (http://belajarbahasainggrissendiri.blogspot.com/2011/08/belajar-bahasa-inggris-bahasan-modifier.html)

Komplemen Dalam Bahasa Inggris

Komplemen dalam bahasa Inggris selalu digunakan dalam sehari-hari sebagai pelengkap karena memang bentuk komplemen berfungsi untuk melengkapi arti kata kerja. Kata kerja inipun spesifik yaitu kata kerja yang mengekspresikan being (keadaan), seeming (nampaknya/kelihatannya), feeling (perasaan), atau appearing (pemunculan). Kata kerja seperti ini disebut juga dengan kata kerja kopulatif atau linking verb, yaitu menghubungkan antara subjek dengan komplemen itu sendiri. Perlu diingat bahwa kata kerja kopulatif tidak diikuti oleh objek langsung dan semua bentuk kata kerja “be” adalah kopulatif kecuali jika “be” digunakan sebagai kata kerja bantu (auxiliary) yang membentuk perubahan waktu kalimat aktif atau pasif dan mood (suasana) dari kata kerja tersebut.

It seems so hard to believe.
(seems menghubungkan subjek “it” dengan “hard, dan “hard” sendiri merupakan komplemen dari “seems”)

He will be here in a minute.
(Kata kerja “will be” menghubungkan subjek “He” dengan “here” (disini) dan “here” merupakan komplemen dari “will be”

I feel well today.
(“well” merupakan komplemen dari kata kerja “feel”)

I am fine
(fine merupakan komplemen dari kata kerja to be “am”. “Am” sendiri kopulatif)

He was in the toilet
(in the toilet merupakan komplemen dari kata kerja to be “was”, dan “was” kopulatif )

I am working with my friend.
(kata kerja to be “am” bukan kopulatif karena “am” digunakan sebagai auxiliary yang membentuk perubahan waktu kalimat positif yaitu present progressive (sedang))

English is taught in almost all schools in Indonesia.
(kata kerja to be “is” bukan kopulatif karena “is” digunakan sebagai auxiliary yang membentuk makna pasif)

Was he born in Indonesia ?
(“Was” bukan kopulatif dan merupakan indicative mood karena menanyakan pertanyaan)

Source : http://belajarbahasainggrissendiri.blogspot.com/2011/08/belajar-bahasa-inggris-bahasan.html

Fungsi Kata Kerja (Verb)

Kata Kerja (verbs) merupakan kata yang biasa menjadi predikat dalam suatu kalimat yang berfungsi untuk menunjukkan nama perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh subyek, serta dapat menunjukkan suatu keadaan

contoh kalimat:
(tense)
I drink coffee (Present Tense) … untuk menunjukkan keadaan (aktivitas), menggunakan v1 atau verb 1

(Past Tense)
I launched this blog on august 14th 2008 … menunjukkan keadaan masa lampau,menggunakan V2,atau verb 2

(Future Tense)
I will study …;menunjukkan aktivitas yang akan datang,menggunakan v1 diikuti kata “will” yang menunjukkan “future”

(Past Future Tense)
She would learn music … menunjukkan aktifitas yang akan dilakukan pada masa lampau,disini verb yang digunakan verb 1 diikuti kata “would” sebagai tanda past future tense.

Contoh artikel :
Sound Horizon, abbreviated by fans as Sanhora (サンホラ), is a Japanese musical group with composer Revo as the leader. They call themselves the “fantasy band”. Their music is generally in omnibus style; an album contains multiple stories with different themes that create one long story. Soprano or mezzo-soprano vocals are mainly utilized. Usage of narration is not restrained. Strong anime influences and applications are apparent in their music; they have started inviting seiyū for narration since their major debut. Their lyrics are very often mysterious and metaphorical, even more so than those of other J-rock musicians, with themes varying from fantastic ones like ancient curse, legend, dreams, war, and paradise to forbidden lust, longing, obsession, crime, relationships, etc. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_Horizon)

highlights :
they have started inviting seiyū for narration since their major debut… (Past continues Tense)
inviting : Verb

subject dan verb agreement:

Subjects and verbs must agree in number, which means that a singular subject requires a singular verb whereas a plural subject requires a plural verb. Study the following examples which illustrate this principle:
I am here. (singular)
You are here. (sing/pl)
He is here. (singular)
We are here. (plural)
I do yoga. (singular)
You do yoga. (sing/pl)
She does yoga. (singular)
We do yoga. (plural)
I have pets. (singular)
You have pets. (sing/pl)
Joe has pets. (singular)
We have pets. (plural)
I play piano. (singular)
You play piano. (sing/pl)
One plays piano.(singular)
We play piano. (plural)
I was first. (singular)
You were first. (sing/pl)
It was first. (singular)
We were first. (plural)

The following rules/suggestions to determine correct subject-verb agreement.
1. Connecting subjects with “and” usually makes them plural; therefore, to check for proper agreement you can substitute the pronouns “they” or “we” for plural subjects. (Exceptions include pairs of words that are considered to be one thing. Peanut butter and jelly is my favorite sandwich.) For example:
Mary and Jack are friends. The car and the truck run well. He and I are friends.
(They are friends) (They run well.) (We are friends.)

2. Connecting subjects with “or” or “nor” can require either a singular verb or plural verb; use the subject closer to the verb to decide which form is correct. For example:
Neither she nor I am going Neither Jack nor Mary is going Joe or his brothers are on call.
Either Jane, Maria, Anne, Cassandra, or Ann has the tickets. His dog or my cats have to go!

3. Prepositional phrases never contain the subject of the sentence. In most cases, you should ignore the prepositional phrase when trying to determine the correct verb form to use. For example:
One of the flowers is dying The coach, along with the players, is celebrating.
Neither of those boys has graduated. Either of those dresses looks fine.
Both of the books were on sale. Every one of the glasses is broken.

4. Singular indefinite pronouns require singular verbs. Examples of singular indefinite pronouns include the following: one, anyone, everyone, someone, nobody, anybody, everybody, somebody, nothing, anything, everything, something, each, either, neither.
Everyone is happy. Each of the sacks was full. Nobody was leaving. That one costs too much.

5. A few indefinite pronouns can be singular or plural, depending upon their use in the sentence. Often information in a prepositional phrase can help you decide whether the pronoun is singular or plural. These “two-way” pronouns are as follows: all, some, any, none, most, more, enough.
All of the pie was eaten. Most of the roof is finished. None of the snow has melted.
All of the pears were eaten. Most of the trees are dying. None of the boys have passed.

6. The words “here” and “there” are not used as subjects. When they start a sentence, you must look elsewhere for the subject. Also, you must be careful to find the correct subject when dealing with questions because the subject will often not be the first word of the question. Study the following (subjects are underlined):
There go my two best friends. Where has she gone? Here is your math book.
Why are you doing this? What are their names? There seem to be problems.

7. Some nouns that end in “s” are singular in meaning and require a singular verb. Other nouns that end in “s” are singular in meaning but require a plural verb. Consider these examples:
Mathematics is easy. Measles is a contagious disease. Physics is complicated.
The scissors are sharp. My pants need to be washed. Those shorts are torn.

8. Collective nouns such as “class” or “team” may be singular or plural depending upon how they are used: emphasis on the group takes a singular verb; emphasis on members acting individually requires a plural verb.
The class was dismissed. The class are presenting their reports this week.
(The whole group as one.) (The class members individually will give the reports.)

9. In an adjective clause, the verb agrees with the antecedent of the relative pronoun (who, which, that), which is usually the nearest noun. When “only one” is emphasized among a larger number, always use “one” as the singular antecedent. Consider the following examples (the antecedents are underlined):
I like a dog that is friendly. I like dogs that are friendly. One of the dogs that are sick is mine.
Only one of the girls who is coming is single. That is the only one of the dogs that is still sick.

10. Weights, measures, time, and money can be either singular or plural. If they are thought of as whole quantities, they are singular; if they are countable, separate units, then they are considered plural.

Source : http://www.sinclair.edu/centers/tlc/pub/handouts_worksheets/grammar_punctuation_writing/subject_verb_agreement.pdf

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